Physical Preparedness: The missing link in strength training
By Bryan Mann
times athletes will get so caught up in the idea of trying to
get stronger that they forget about everything else. They may
work out every day, feel strong and think that they’re in
great shape, but they can’t walk across the room without
having to stop and catch their breath. This is puzzling to the
athlete who has put in so many hours of training to be in “such
great shape.” Many injuries happen because one variable
is left out, things begin to stagnate, and soon after that the
athlete gets hurt. This is where General Physical Preparedness
training (GPP) often can help.
Physical Preparedness training is not a style of training like
periodization or the conjugate method; it is a component of training.
“GPP training serves several functions: 1) the formation,
strengthening or restoration of habits (skills) which play an
auxiliary, facilitory role in sports perfectioning. 2) As a means
of educating abilities, developed insufficiently by the selected
type of sport, raising the general work capacity or preserving
it. 3) As active rest, assisting the restoration processes after
significant, specific loading and counteracting the monotony of
the training. These functions define the role of the general-preparatory
exercises in the athlete’s training system.” (Medvedeyev,
a coach becomes too concerned with one aspect of training, the
athletes will get out of balance and either get injured or suffer
from burn out. GPP helps prevent imbalances and boredom with both
specific and non-specific exercises by conditioning the body to
work (Verkoshanksy, 1988). The greater the athlete’s GPP,
the easier it will be for them to adapt to the exercises and demands
of a sport (Bompa, 1999).
work can be done many different ways. One of the most common ways
is to use a weighted sled (Simmons, Tate). There are many different
ways to drag a sled, and several articles have been written on
the different variations on the sled, so only the basics will
be discussed here.
sled towing can be done in two different intervals, in measurements
of time and distance. When dragging the sled for time, usually
you will tow for two minutes in one style, rest 30 seconds, tow
for two minutes in a different style, and repeat until your time
is achieved (Tate). For example, tow by dragging the sled forwards
for two minutes, then turn around and drag the sled while walking
backwards for two minutes, then laterally for two minutes. Often
times people start out dragging for about 14-15 minutes and work
up to 20-30 minutes. The time doesn’t increase after you
achieve the desired fitness level of dragging a weight for that
amount of time, instead of increasing the amount of time, you
increase the amount of weight.
for distance is done for 200 feet (Simmons), stop, rest (if the
exercise will be changed, do so now) then repeat the distance.
At the rest point, changing the style of dragging is optional.
An athlete can change exercises each rep, as explained earlier,
in the same manner as explained in time or do all reps in the
the dragging is done in place of a max effort exercise on the
max effort lower day, the distance is cut down to 100 feet and
more weight is used. Every trip, you will add more weight onto
the sled until the sled cannot be dragged for the full 100 feet.
many programs, a sled may not be affordable to purchase. However,
they are very simple to build. But you can easily improvise instead
of building one. All that is really needed is a place to add weight
and a way to pull the sled. You can easily improvise a sled by
using an old tire, a long piece of rope, a piece of plywood, and
some weights. Lay the tire down flat and tie the rope to it. Next,
place the plywood in the bottom of the tire giving it a platform
a base for adding weight. Now, simply put weight in the tire,
tie a rope around your stomach and go to work.
can be trained with various implements, very similar to the Strongman
events. A vehicle push, tire flip, farmers walk, wheelbarrow push,
plate carries, various implement carries, etc.
vehicle push can be done by gradually building up, and you can
save money by using the athletes’ or coaches’ vehicles.
Start out with something small like a little Toyota, and then
progress to larger and larger vehicles. If large SUV’s or
trucks get too easy, just start putting people in them. It’s
nothing fancy, just hard work.
cheap and easy idea is the tire discus throw, this idea was given
to me by Russell Traphagan at Parkview High School in Springfield,
Missouri. Take an old (or new) tire out to the football field,
and simply hurl it like you would a discus. Repeat until you get
to the end of the field, work up to about three trips. Another
idea from Traphagan is to take a 45-pound plate, place it on a
towel on the floor, get on all fours and push it. Keep the distance,
reps, and sets the same as towing. If this gets too easy make
it more challenging by placing 2-25 pound plates on two towels
so there will be more stabilization used to push each plate individually.
tire flip is done just like on the World’s Strongest Man
Competition. Simply bend down, pick up a large tractor tire (500lbs
minimum) and flip it over. This is a full body exercise. This
is one of the few exercises that can actually cost something,
if you cannot get it donated by a tire store or an old tire from
a farmer. The tires don’t wear out very quickly, so it might
be tough to get.
Farmers Walk is a very simple exercise; take a heavy set of dumbbells
and walk with them. Always try to push the athletes to use more
weight on this as soon as they can get done what is prescribed.
The equipment is there for this if you already own dumbbells,
so it is easy to implement into your workout.
If the weight room has Olympic platforms with semi- or completely
rubberized plates, simply pick these up on the edges and walk
with them to perform a version of a farmers walk called a plate
carry. Wheelbarrow pushes and pulls are another good GPP exercise,
and will probably cost nothing as many athletes or their parents
will have a wheelbarrow in their garage. You can load up the wheelbarrow
with either plates or objects and go to town. Not only does this
work GPP, but will fry the grip and hamstrings of the athlete
are the various implement carries. Maybe an athlete or coach has
an old engine block in their garage, or a huge stone in their
back yard, or maybe they have an old oxen yolk in their attic.
Be creative with this and use your imagination. The implement
lifts should be used to have fun and eliminate boredom during
GPP training. One thing to remember though is that you don’t
want to hurt anyone, so if it has sharp edges or objects sticking
out, either round them, get rid of them, or forget about the implement
all together. Watch the Strong Man Competitions and maybe it will
give you an idea. Just because they use a $3,000 anchor to tow
doesn’t mean you can’t use an old engine block on
a rope. It doesn’t have to be expensive to be fun.
creative, and do it for a set time or distance. Maybe it’s
two minutes, and just try to beat the distance each time. Maybe
do it for a set distance and try and beat the time. Maybe do some
sort of combination of events like a relay. Just try to keep it
interesting, and go no more than two minutes. Going for longer
than two minutes will begin tapping into the aerobic energy system.
If you want to do aerobics, join a health club or buy a pair of
common way to train GPP is with Javoreks complexes (Javorek, 2000).
They are all combinations of Olympic and explosive exercises designed
to increase GPP, lactic acid threshold, and induce hypertrophy.
Snatch from the thigh x6
Snatch from the thigh x6
Squat & Press x6
Bent Over row x6
Snatch from the floor x6
Upright row x3
Snatch from the thigh x3
Squat & Press x3
Bent over row x3
Snatch from the floor x3
When training GPP with complexes, do multiple sets (start out
with three and work up to six). As with the towing, when you achieve
the upper limit on volume (number of sets) increase the intensity
(amount of weight).
the current most common way of doing GPP is through bodyweight
exercises (Davies, 2001). Exercises such as squats, mountain climbers,
jumping jacks, jumping rope, different jumps, pushups, sit ups,
and just about anything that can be thought of can be done. They
are set up in one of two fashions. Either they are performed for
a set time or a set number of reps and sets. Again, this is another
free or dirt-cheap way to work on GPP.
an exercise is performed for a set time, the repetitions are done
non-stop until the time is completed. There is also a set rest
interval. For instance, a good starting point is 30 seconds on,
60 seconds off. Start with three sets of four exercises. To increase
the workload, one of three things can be done: increase the number
of sets, decrease the rest time, or increase the work time. You
eventually want to build up to ten minutes of work time. The beauty
of this style of training is that it leaves you the freedom to
be able to be creative. Let your mind go and come up with something
conclusion, General Physical Preparedness will be what more athletes
and coaches turn to for the edge on their competition in the near
future. By using implements, weights, and bodyweight, a athlete
can teach their body to go for long times through strenuous exercise
at a moments notice. Teams such as the Green Bay Packers in the
NFL have already begun to do it and have gotten excellent results
by being able to out-play the other team in the fourth quarter.
1) Bompa, T. (1999) Periodization: Theory and methodology of training.
2) Siff, M. (2000) Supertraining. Supertraining International,
Denver, 5th Edition
3) Verkoshansky, V. (1988) Programming and Organization of Sports
training. Sportiviny Press, Livonia, MI.
4) Yesis, M. (1987) Secrets of Soviet Sports Fitness and Training.
Arbor House, NY, NY
5) Davies, J. (2001) Renegade Training for Football. Dragondoor
6) Simmons, L. GPP. http://www.deepsquatter.com/strength/archives/ls14.htm
7) Tate, D. Dragging your butt into shape. http://www.testosterone.net/html/146gpp.html
8) Javorek, I. (2000) Javoreks Tremendous Pleasure Conditioning
9) Medvedyev, A (1989) A system of Multi-Year Training in Weightlifting.
Sportivny Press, Livonia, MI